Guide Safety, Health, and Environmental Auditing: A Practical Guide

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They do it themselves using this book. Integrates the concepts of safety health and environmental auditing into a common approach of "loss prevention" Provides an audit protocol for 60 aspects of safety, health, and environmental management Presents a summary of the requirements of ISO and ISO to auditing Introduces the novel and unique concept of Auditing Convergence Offers a simple auditing software The Plaudit II audit process in an electronic program which no other book on this topic can offer.

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Used from other sellers Check for new and used marketplace copies. Features Integrates the concepts of safety health and environmental auditing into a common approach of "loss prevention" Provides an audit protocol for 60 aspects of safety, health, and environmental management Presents a summary of the requirements of ISO and ISO to auditing Introduces the novel and unique concept of Auditing Convergence Offers a simple auditing software The Plaudit II audit process in an electronic program which no other book on this topic can offer.

Health, Safety and Environment The Story of Crossrail Christian Wolmar auth The Electrician's Guide to the The Institution of Eng Brian Scaddan, Institu Information in the document is also useful for minimizing waste disposal costs. The limitations of the documents are its general content and a focus on practices, rather than regulatory requirements.

Despite this limitation, the document provides a good overview, some important management techniques, and a guide to setting up a chemical safety program all of which are useful in setting up a chemical safety and hazardous waste management program. The document includes a one-page list of potential mercury-containing items, followed by 11 questions related to mercury management. The audit criteria in the protocol are management systems criteria, as the protocol asks questions related to managing mercury and having a program in place to assure that the environmental, health, and safety aspects of mercury are considered where mercury is purchased or used.

The limitation of this protocol is that it does not provide detailed regulatory requirements or regulatory citations. Despite this limitation, the document is a useful tool for small businesses to identify items that may potentially contain mercury and to determine whether those materials are being managed safely and in accordance with PADEP requirements.

Motor Vehicle Repair Facilities: Model Facility Guide, Maine Department of Environmental Protection, , 26 pages, Free, Available at This document provides an overview of key regulations applicable to motor vehicle repair operations and several checklists for conducting assessments of these operations.

The document is useful for those conducting compliance and "beyond compliance" assessments of vehicle repair or other maintenance shop operations. The checklist questions are presented such that "yes" answers indicate the facility is complying with Maine requirements, while "no" answers indicate the facility is out of compliance. Of special note are chapters on oil filters, rags and absorbents, and tires. The limitations of the document are that it does not include regulatory citations, does not include all regulatory requirements that may apply to these operations, and includes requirements that are only applicable in Maine.

Nevertheless, the document provides a comprehensive overview of the air, water, waste management, and good housekeeping issues that apply to vehicle maintenance operations, and provides a number of clearly presented checklists that are useful for conducting self-assessments. For facilities located in other states, this document is still a good starting point, since the Maine-specific requirements are more strict than the federal requirements. Multimedia Inspection Checklist, State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Community Assistance, , 5 pages, Free, Available at This checklist covers the state's major environmental regulatory program areas and is useful for any business.

The checklist includes questions on general observation, emergency plans, air emissions, pesticides, water, radiation, hazardous waste, solid waste, PCBs, underground storage tanks, injection wells, mines, and pollution prevention. The document is useful for small businesses that would like to review its operations and determine the regulatory areas that apply to its operations and some of the compliance requirements.

The limitation of the document as a self-assessment tool is that the "correct" answers for all of the questions are not always obvious, and some questions are merely to gather information. Given this limitation, the checklist is best used for a facility to understand the environmental aspects of its operations and then to consult with the Division of Community Assistance to interpret the results. However, unlike other checklists that may be developed solely for information gathering purposes of the Department of the Environment, this checklist does ask many questions that provide compliance requirements, giving the small business an opportunity to be introduced to these requirements in many of the program areas.

Note that although the document was prepared by the State of Tennessee, the checklist would be useful to small businesses in other states as well. The appendices include lists of hazardous wastes to assist the facility in determining which wastes are hazardous wastes. The protocol is formatted in two columns, with the first column listing the regulatory requirement and the second listing the auditor review activities.

The protocol is useful for small or medium-sized businesses that have some familiarity with hazardous waste issues or environmental regulations, and provides a comprehensive walk-through of the RCRA generator requirements. The limitations of the document are that new users or very small businesses may prefer to begin self-audits with other tools that present most rather than all of the requirements in a short i. For those businesses looking to evaluate the protocols of auditors, this document provides a good base for comparison.

In addition to the audit checklist, the document includes background information on EPA's Audit Policy, how to use the protocol, key compliance requirements, definitions of key terms, typical records to review, typical features to inspect, and a checklist index. The protocol is useful for small or medium-sized businesses in chemical, metal finishing, wood preserving, or other industries that may be required to store their hazardous wastes for extended periods of time.

The protocol is also useful for businesses that would like to audit disposal facilities that accept waste from the small business, to assure that the waste is being properly managed. The extensive detail may contain more information than small businesses can easily manage and may be more useful for those with some environmental management experience.

Thus this document would more likely be useful to a consultant or outside auditor hired by the small business, rather than the small business itself. The protocol begins with an introduction to the regulations governing reporting and responding to releases of hazardous substances, and continues with description of the process of evaluating a contaminated site, conducting a remedial investigation, selecting remediation methods, removing contaminated materials, involving the community in cleanup, and maintaining an administrative record.

The protocol is useful for small businesses that may use or manufacture hazardous substances that may be released to the environment, or small businesses that owns property on which contamination has occurred. The protocol provides a checklist of regulatory requirements from initial reporting through cleanup. Even if a facility has not had a release that caused contamination in the past, the protocol is useful for its checklist or reporting requirements. It is useful to small businesses that store quantities of hazardous or extremely hazardous substances, because it explains regulations that can be difficult to interpret if a facility were simply to look at the Code of Federal Regulations.

As with the EPCRA protocol see below , a table in an appendix includes a list of all hazardous and extremely hazardous substances that may make a facility subject to these requirements, allowing the facility to do a self-check to determine if the requirements apply. The limitations of the protocol are that it does not indicate which chemicals are likely to make a small business subject to the regulations.

The CERCLA requirements are more likely to apply to laboratory or manufacturing operations than service providers, such as auto repair, dry cleaners, or printers. Thus many facilities may not need this protocol. The major benefit of the protocol is that it provides a structured format for reviewing the potentially complex requirements of CERCLA and a method of evaluating remediation contractor proposals and activities. The protocol begins with an introduction to the regulations governing planning for releases of hazardous chemicals stored, manufactured, or used at a facility, and is then followed by the checklist which walks the user through several sections of the Code of Federal Regulations that cover emergency planning and reporting requirements.

The protocol is useful for small businesses that may store quantities of hazardous or extremely hazardous substances because it explains regulations that can be difficult to interpret if a facility were simply to look at the Code of Federal Regulations. A table in an appendix includes a list of all hazardous and extremely hazardous substances that may make a facility subject to these requirements, allowing the facility to do a self-check to determine if the requirements apply.

The major benefit of the protocol is that it provides resources for the small business to make its own applicability determination. In contrast to some of the other more complex regulations, the smaller scope of the EPCRA requirements would likely allow small businesses to rely on this protocol as a comprehensive, yet not overly complex, resource for EPCRA compliance. The workbook is organized in three basic sections that the user can complete in series or concurrently.

The workbook includes checklists that cover the manufacturing process raw material usage, final product, and plant subsystems used in the manufacturing process and help the user focus on the processes and identify all energy consuming equipment. The workbook also contains 21 recommendations and examples of cost saving projects identified by the Department of Energy's Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center and the Industrial Assessment Center programs.

The recommendations include fluorescent tube replacement, compacting trash, water savings measures, and suggestions on how to maximize boiler operations among other projects. The book has few limitations. A small manufacturer can easily use the workbook to perform a self-audit of the manufacturing process, the plant's subsystems, and current waste minimization procedures. The workbook lists all the equipment an auditor will need to collect the recommended information and provides sample calculations. For non-manufacturing businesses, the workbook includes potentially useful examples of cost savings through roof insulation, lighting recommendations, and waste reduction recommendations including water saving measures, recycling programs for wooden pallets and corrugated cardboard, and trash compacting.

The checklist asks questions related to training employees, storing materials, minimizing leaks and spills, maintaining good housekeeping, modifying costly procedures, retrofitting older equipment, using care with floor drains, and developing a marketing plan. The limitation of the checklist is that it does not cite regulatory requirements; thus, those using the checklist are uncertain which of the checklist items are required by law or regulations and which are good management practices.

However, in contrast to checklists that ask general questions, this self-audit tool asks many specific questions, where the good management practice or regulatory requirement is specified in the question itself. For those who would like more information on the regulatory citations, the checklist provides contact information within PADEP.

Overall, the checklist is a useful tool for dry cleaners in Pennsylvania and in other states to evaluate their operations with respect to compliance requirements and opportunities to reduce environmental impact through the use of good management practices. It includes chapters on developing a site visit program, available technical assistance tools, the site visit audit process, and special considerations.

It is most useful for small business assistance providers who will be conducting site visits or environmental audits and offer compliance assistance. It is also useful for small businesses who will be conducting self- audits, or who hire consultants to conduct audits. The limitations of the document are its focus on process, rather than regulatory criteria.

However, the document brings in many compliance assistance resources and audit process checklists that would be very useful for a small business interested in environmental auditing. Overall, this document provides a very good overview of auditing and the audit process targeted directly toward small businesses and small business assistance providers. Box, Jackson, Ml This three-page questionnaire is required to be completed by small quantity generators SQGs of hazardous waste in Mississippi. The questionnaire walks the user through components of a waste minimization program and allows the user to consider aspects of waste minimization efforts.

The document is useful for small businesses that generate hazardous waste or that generate any wastes and would like to reduce the volumes generated. The questionnaire does not provide any guidance on waste minimization technologies, management strategies, or green purchases that might aid small businesses in reducing waste generation. For users in Mississippi, in helps meet a regulatory requirement. For users outside of Mississippi, it provides questions for the small business to consider as it manages and minimizes its hazardous waste.

It is a comprehensive listing of compliance assistance tools developed by small business assistance providers from all 50 states. The bibliography includes one-to-two sentence descriptions of documents available in each state. The documents contained in the bibliography include compliance assistance centers, fact sheets, booklets, guidebooks, comprehensive manuals, regulatory summaries, and other information all targeted toward helping small businesses prevent pollution and achieve compliance.

Most of the materials in the bibliography are available free of charge. The software provides protocols for EPA, OSHA, DOT, and state regulations, and allows the user to edit the protocols to include best management practices and pollution prevention audit criteria that may not be in the regulations.

The program is useful for small to medium- sized businesses for maintaining regulations, developing facility-specific protocols, generating audit reports, and tracking audit data. The software is comprehensive, thus requiring the auditor to determine which protocol questions apply to the facility. Audit Builder can help small businesses conduct audits, manage its audit data, produce clear, presentable audit reports, and assure compliance.

When combined with compliance assistance materials from state small business agencies, the software can significantly increase a business's ability to maintain an audit program. EPA , , Free, Located atwww. The site includes a regulatory handbook with a "virtual plant tour," a step-by-step review of key regulations, and other features to help businesses better understand how regulations apply to their operations. It also includes a collection of self-assessment resources such as checklists on compliance, risk assessment, environmental management systems, and pollution prevention.

Furthermore, it includes links to contacts for pollution prevention and compliance assistance, a glossary of environmental and regulatory terms, and other resources available on the World Wide Web. The Web site is useful as a first stop for small businesses that process or otherwise deal with chemicals in their operations, and provides a good complement to materials available from state small business assistance providers.

The checklists provide audit criteria for conducting self- assessments and the other resources are useful for developing corrective actions to audit findings. The limitation of the Web site is that it is focused on the process chemical industry. Thus, it is useful for all businesses with a chemical focus, and for those that are looking for general compliance assistance information.

The significant amount of information is well presented, making it easy for the user to locate and review information.

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Overall, this source is a useful first step for many businesses and a key source of information for process chemical businesses. While the booklet is written for companies that deal with chemicals, the focus is on community outreach activities and programs that could apply to any small or medium-sized business.

The booklet's main benefit to audit programs is that it defines elements of a community outreach program, including elements of programs focused on product stewardship, information distribution, emergency response, general education, advocacy, community advisory groups, and community events. The booklet could be used to generate an in-house checklist to evaluate a business's community outreach activities. Included in the booklet are 50 pages of case study highlights of community outreach programs, with examples from each of the above categories, contact information, and hours spent on each assignment.

Compliance is not this booklet's goal, and it is useful for businesses that not only want to maintain a strong environmental program, but also want to communicate that program to the public. Overall, this booklet has few limitations, as it can be used as a reference for developing a community outreach program, or as the basis for auditing community outreach activities.

Note that the Chemical Education Foundation has many additional compliance assistance materials available on its Web site www. The document is applicable to all businesses large and small , with no specific industry focus. It is most useful to small and large quantity generators of hazardous waste. The document separates the Code of Federal Regulations CFR by topic area as a business would likely consider them, presenting the requirements in a list format that makes them much easier to understand than in the CFR directly.

With each requirement e. While not presented in checklist form, the document could be used as an internal checklist for hazardous waste compliance. At a minimum, the document is useful for the small business to better understand hazardous waste rules, and to be able to ask questions about specific sections of the rules from DEP, EPA, or other experts. Document appendices include a manifest tracking log, weekly container storage area inspection log, New Jersey hazardous waste contact information, and a list of commercially permitted hazardous waste facilities.

The manual also includes fire and building services information, and waste prevention and minimization recommendations. The manual is most useful for small businesses that deal with vehicle maintenance activities. The extensive compliance assistance portion of the document guides the user through the different types of vehicle repair activities and the associated regulatory requirements with each.

The compliance assistance portion contains several lists of compliance requirements that could be used as internal checklists to verify compliance. The attachments contain information useful for setting up an environmental, health, and safety program at a facility, including worksheets for developing a hazard communication plan, assigning responsibilities for various environmental activities, preparing a chemical inventory, and certifying CFC recovery systems.

The attachments also include sample hazardous waste manifests and shipping labels.

Health, Safety and Environmental Management Systems Auditing, 2nd Edition + CD

The limitation of this document is that it does not contain brief checklists or protocols that could be extracted to conduct a self-audit. While much of the information necessary to conduct an audit is contained in the document, the lack of checklists may mean the document has too much information for a brief review.

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This limitation can be overcome, however, by obtaining checklists or protocols from other sources such as CCAR-Greenlink or other states where vehicle maintenance or auto repair audit checklists have been developed. The Indiana guide is extremely comprehensive and could be used either as the basis for making new checklists or as a complement to other audit tools.

The software program is an audit tool in that the audit criteria are presented in checklist format and can be used to create audit reports and track audit findings. The program is useful for small or medium-sized businesses that are developing an internal audit program and would like to use one source of information for audit criteria, checklists, and information management. One benefit of this software is the ability of the business to add its own checklist questions or best management practice criteria to the checklists and easily incorporate these criteria into its audit program.

For businesses looking to establish long-term programs, Dakota Auditor may present an efficient tool to conduct audits, assure compliance, and manage audit data. The guide was designed to assist chemical companies preparing for environmental, health, and safety audits of the facility by customers. The guide takes the user through the stages of an assessment including planning, the assessment itself and follow-up. The guide includes a survey that allows the user to gather pertinent information on training, personnel, permits, and issues associated with air, water, solid and hazardous waste, as well as safety and health issues such as occupational exposures.

In addition, the guide includes a housekeeping checklist to ensure the user's facility is in good condition prior to the audit. The guide is useful for small businesses that is preparing for an environmental assessment. Even if a facility is not a manufacturing facility, the guide is effective in directing the user towards gathering pertinent information.

It does not indicate if a business is in compliance or which regulations apply. Rather it focuses on the audit process and steps a facility can take to prepare for an audit. The guide is especially helpful for small businesses preparing for an external audit. The Guide includes case studies, "helpful hints," sample procedures for implementing portions of an EMS, and recommendations for implementing EMSs. Approximately one-third of the Guide's pages focus on developing an EMS, while the rest of the Guide provides case studies and implementation tools.

The Guide is useful for small businesses that want to understand EMS criteria. It provides links to state assistance programs, state environmental agencies, EPA hotlines, and national compliance assistance centers, as well as compliance assistance materials, information on water and energy conservation, and a list of publications. It is useful as a starting point for small businesses wanting to learn more about compliance and pollution prevention and the resources available to them.

It is also useful to supplement information received from other sources and to obtain general information i.

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If a small business has Internet access, this Web site should be the first place to start searching for environmental management information an a list of useful local contacts. The checklist provides 13 categories of operations that may take place at small businesses and then identifies three-to-ten P2 opportunities for each operation. Each opportunity is a potential resource savings for the small business and a method of reducing the business's impact on human health and the environment. The checklist provides examples of engineering controls e. While the document is most useful for businesses with these operations, the document contains general questions about water conservation, energy usage, spill prevention, and materials handling that can be used by all businesses, small and large.

Available atwww. Two of the most useful products are software ISO environmental management systems audits, for implementing an environmental management system that meets the ISO audit criteria. The software can be linked with financial auditing software so that small businesses can manage its environmental management systems and its financial audit data.

The software is useful for small businesses that would like to incorporate their audits into an existing data management tool with the audit criteria incorporated with audit data. While some small businesses may find the software more formal than is necessary. It is also useful for medium sized or larger businesses that have multiple facilities and would like a prepared software program to manage their data. The book also provides a checklist for a self-energy audit and tools to develop an energy management system. The book is useful for small businesses to evaluate and improve energy usage of current operations through focused operation and maintenance.

The book is also useful for small businesses during purchasing processes to evaluate the energy efficiency of new products, for annual budgeting, for remodeling or building add-ons, or to upgrade maintenance programs to include an energy conservation focus. The book is useful because it provides examples of actual costs of different energy alternatives and methods for calculating savings for several aspects of operations, such as different types of building doors, HVAC systems, electricity purchases based on different rate systems , lighting, security, and windows.

It can be used to conduct self-audits, to develop an energy conservation program, to evaluate proposed process evaluations or audits of energy consultants, or simply as a guide to include energy conservation in future business planning. Also available at www. EPA's enforcement policy for disclosure of potential compliance issues discovered in an environmental audit and proposed modifications to the policy.

The documents explain how small businesses may report potential compliance issues to EPA and receive a waived penalty, or penalty reductions, provided that the compliance issue is corrected by the facility within a specified time period. Note that the small business policy applies only to small businesses, while the audit policy applies to small and large businesses. The manual also contains information that would be useful to general auto repair shops or small businesses that maintain their own fleet vehicles. The document is one of the most comprehensive compliance assistance materials available to small businesses because it includes health and safety as well as environmental requirements.

It includes a plain-language description of the basic environmental, health, and safety issues and regulations that apply to Massachusetts auto body shops, a comprehensive self-audit checklist to help shops review their compliance, and information on pollution prevention opportunities.

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The manual also provides regulatory and assistance contact information within Massachusetts. The manual is organized such that the user can fairly easily turn to the desired section, read about the requirements, and then move on to the checklist. However, while Massachusetts is the focus, there is sufficient discussion of EPA requirements, EPA contacts, and pollution prevention opportunities that apply in any state to make this document worthwhile to businesses in all states.

EPA The National Automotive Compliance Assistance Center provides many audit tools, self-assessment checklists, federal and state compliance assistance and pollution prevention documents, and links to additional state programs and documents. The center is useful for small businesses involved in auto repair or who have vehicle repair or building maintenance activities as part of their operations.

The limitation of the Web site is that it does not contain information on all state regulatory requirements for waste disposal of antifreeze, used oil, and solvents, all of which may be regulated differently from state to state. The Web site does contain links to state environmental agencies, so that the user can find the appropriate contacts if the needed information is not directly available on the Web site.

Similar to other compliance assistance centers, this Web site can answer many questions and provides many useful tools for small businesses to conduct self-assessments of and make improvements to their environmental management activities related to auto repair. The free site provides information on environmental news and regulatory updates, but does not provide access to compliance assistance materials.

The document recommends that businesses that would like a free audit to complete An Environmental Self-Evaluation for Small Business available at www. The brochure is simply designed to promote the program and has little value on its own. The brochure and the program only apply to businesses within Pennsylvania. For Pennsylvania businesses, the contact information and the site visit program can be useful for small businesses to conduct self-assessments, and to determine how to evaluate their opportunities for waste reduction, energy efficiency, and cost savings through better environmental and energy management.

Note that many other states have similar programs through the state Small Business Assistance Program usually found within the state department of environmental protection, or the state office of economic development. This free site includes links to federal and state compliance assistance programs. The workshop is designed to educate printers on hazardous waste generation, water discharges, and air pollution issues and regulations affecting their operations.

The workbook contains background information describing printing processes and their potential environmental impacts, along with checklists on the regulatory requirements under each section. The document is useful to printers in all states for understanding environmental requirements and conducting self-assessments. The limitation of the document is its focus on printers. The Resource Guide provides over 70 pages of sources of information on general health and safety, environmental and pollution control, emergency planning and response, hazardous materials transportation and regulations, regulatory compliance, product stewardship, and trade associations.

The guide focuses on the chemical industry, and nearly all the materials are available through the Chemical Education Foundation regardless of the author or publisher. The limitation of this document is similar to the limitations of the Audit Source Book, in that it directs the user to other materials, rather than directly providing information. The document defines hazardous wastes, lists hazardous wastes typically generated by small businesses and the wastes' associated waste codes, explains how to determine the quantity of waste generated, how to obtain an EPA identification number, requirements for conditionally exempt small quantity generators and small quantity generators, and requirements for managing waste on site.

The document concludes with a list of state environmental protection agencies and their contact offices for hazardous waste management. The document is useful for small businesses that would like a walk-through of the hazardous waste requirements, or would like to conduct a self- review of its waste generation activities. The document has limited use in auditing because it does not have a summary checklist or brief audit-review tool.

However, the document is easy to read, and provides essential information that would be useful to any small business that would like to better understand requirements for generating, storing, managing, and disposing of hazardous waste. Diamond Avenue, Suite , Gaithersburg, MD , This training course provides an introduction to auditing targeted toward small to medium-sized businesses, and small business assistance providers. The one-day course includes an overview of the audit process, discussion of audit terminology, internal vs. The one-day course includes several exercises and discussion to allow attendees to practice the techniques in the classroom or at a nearby facility.

The four-day course generally includes visits to a local facility where attendees will use audit tools, evaluate facility performance, develop audit findings, and begin to draft corrective action items for the facility. The course is useful for small to medium-sized businesses that are interested in an orientation to auditing and who would like to be able to determine how a formal auditing program may benefit their business operations.

The course is also useful for small business assistance providers that would like to improve their techniques for planning site visits and to be better able to provide auditing expertise to small businesses. Overall, the course provides a detailed review of auditing, combined with practical skills training to allow attendees to better conduct their own internal program, or to be better able to evaluate independent auditors who may visit their facility.

The course is useful for small businesses with manufacturing, printing, painting, or processing operations that may generate air pollutants. The course trains those businesses to conduct internal audits, or to evaluate outside consultants. Specific Clean Air Act topics include air permits in New Jersey, operating permits, pollution prevention, and preparing air emissions statements.

Thus, its use may be limited for those in other states. Classes vary in length and may include the development of an EMS program, hands-on training, writing audit findings, and extensive interaction with other professionals. Training courses are an individual choice based on company needs and previous knowledge of the attendee.

Most of the training listed below is geared toward EMS and ISO implementation and will discuss in some detail the audit process itself. The vast majority of the companies listed offer ANSI-RAB or similar types of certification training courses for those individuals wanting lead auditor certification. The courses listed below are targeted toward enhancing attendee understanding of the auditing standards to be able to conduct audits. The major limitation of these courses is that they are not always relevant to the environmental issues at the small business facility.

When registering for a class, to maximize the value of the class, it is important for the small business to determine whether the instructor is familiar with key environmental regulations and plant operations, or whether the small business should receive separate training on environmental issues and regulations prior to attending an ISO training course. Excel Partnership, Inc. Lead auditor, internal auditor, and implementation training. Training courses for ISO from overview to advance accreditation. Courses on ISO and auditing.

Courses on ISO interpretation, documentation and implementation, integration with ISO , and improving performance through internal auditing. Courses in internal auditing, implementation and documentation, and ISO overview. ISO lead auditor course. Audit program development, general EMS auditing, advanced auditor skills, and special training for government agencies.

Courses in lead auditing, management system integration, EMS internal auditing, and an executive overview and interpretations of ISO Courses in lead auditor training, internal auditing, interpreting and implementing ISO , and integrating ISO into a quality management system. Price varies with length of class. Some companies offer discounts for group registration and for attending more than one class in a month period.

Paul, MN , , www. In addition, the class discusses the roles and responsibilities of an auditor, provides information to refine the auditor's interview and note-taking skills, and tips for the auditor. The attendee will also receive information on planning and conducting effective audits, documentation, how to develop an EMS audit report, and preparing a closing meeting.

This class is targeted toward individuals responsible for planning and performing audits or who may be a member of an audit team. A complete list of courses, dates, times, costs, and agendas is available on the Web site. The agendas list the specific content for each class including hands-on exercises.

The two most useful classes for small business are the internal auditing and ISO implementation courses. They provide specific information on developing an EMS, including performing initial reviews, developing a manual, and auditing a facility. The implementation course is geared toward those individuals responsible for developing and implementing an EMS and the auditing course is recommended for those attendees that will perform the audits.

A complete list of courses, dates, times, prices, and agendas is available on the Web site. Courses include a hands-on audit practice course, an ISO internal quality auditor, auditor upgrade and refresher courses, lead auditor courses, a course on performing a gap analysis, and more. Courses are geared toward specific groups and small businesses should choose courses based on their need and the background of individuals performing audits.

The courses range in complexity from an overview to advanced accreditation classes. Courses may not be offered as frequently as some other training institutes. A complete list of courses, dates, times, prices, and agendas is available on the company Web site. The interpretation course reviews the development of ISO and provides an analysis of the components and an understanding of the documentation requirements.

The improving performance course through auditing teaches the attendees how to interpret the ISO Standard and be effective EMS auditors. All courses include case studies. The above courses will benefit small business wanting an understanding of basic ISO principles and how to interpret the Standard.

Classes range from an introduction to lead auditing giving the small business a wide range of training options to meet all the needs of the business. The environmental, health, and safety audit course provides a solid base for general auditing. The courses provide step-by-step interpretation of the requirements and responsibilities of management, writing environmental policy and procedures, establishing an implementation plan, and preparing audit checklists, conducting interviews, and reporting on ISO findings.

The classes are targeted toward senior-level managers, personnel involved in developing and implementing the ISO Standard, and personnel involved in performing the audits. Small businesses need to select classes based on their needs.